Turkmenistan has the same size as Spain, but it has the population of just 5 million people. The reason is Karakum Desert. It covers 80% of the country. Turkmenistan has borders with: Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan and Iran. It has also a coast on the Caspian Sea. The country code is 993. There are a lot of archeological sites in this country. Because of them, many people travel there every year.
All foreign citizens need a visa. It is best to apply for a visa before you travel to Turkmenistan. In almost all cases, you need an invitation letter of a Turkmen travel agency. The exception is an embassy in Geneva Switzerland. In most cases, you can get a transit visa very easy. This visa can be used between 3 and 7 days. However, a full visa is hard to require.
According to the WHO (World Health Organization) you should get vaccinated against: hepatitis A and B, tetanus, rubella, measles, polio, diphtheria and varicella. People who travel for a longer period should vaccinate against meningitis, tuberculosis and rabies.
The best way to travel in this country is by plane. Since 2013, Turkmenistan Airlines has direct flights to: Abu Dhabi, Amritsar, London, Moscow, Istanbul, Dubai, Minsk and several other cities. You cannot travel by train because no train crosses the border. If you want to travel by car, you must have a liability insurance.
70% of the population speaks the Turkmen language. 50% speaks the Russian language. If you don’t know Turkmen, you should use Russian language. Many people don’t understand the English language, so you cannot use it.